I’ve liked bikes and bike culture for quite some time. Went through a Lycra phase years ago, but who are we kidding, I’m no athlete. Now I embrace a more relaxed version of cycling, or maybe that’s just aching middle age speaking to me. Regardless the reason, there are few things I enjoy more than riding my bike, whether I’m winding along scenic routes in NJ and PA, roaming around town, or commuting to the office.

Beyond just general cycling, a few years ago I discovered I like weird bikes. I mean really weird ones, known as recumbent bikes (or ‘bents). These contraptions allow you to remain in a laid back position while you pedal. They hold many advantages (and certainly some disadvantages too) over “regular” bikes. Unfortunately the heyday of recumbents has passed*, but I do believe there’s still a valuable place for them in the cycling community.

I said they were weird didn’t I? This is my first recumbent bike purchased in 2017. Though it’s been heavily modified since this picture was taken, I still ride it today. I’ll be writing more about this particular bike and others later.

Welcome to, my name is Mark. I’m a neuroscientist by training, so I guess I like both brains and bikes. And while I’m just an enthusiast, I hope you’ll find something interesting here. Who knows, maybe there are some future ‘bent riders out there who don’t know it yet.



*I should be more specific: The 2-wheeled recumbent bike has been steadily declining in popularity. The 3-wheeled recumbent trike, on the other hand, is quite popular nowadays (relatively speaking).

Bike review: Azub Origami

Since I began riding recumbents, I’ve often dreamt of traveling with one in a suitcase and unfolding it in some remote destination to tour the countryside. While the pandemic put the brakes on traveling for some time, it did allow me to search for my ideal folding recumbent. In the end, I decided to get another Azub: the Origami. Initially, I planned to replace my Azub MINI with the Origami, but the MINI has since transformed into my cushy electric pedal assist bike that I just can’t bear to let go of yet.

The build

The Origami is a short wheelbase (SWB), dual 20″ aluminum frame recumbent with over-seat steering (OSS). The frame is a streamlined monotube design that looks fast even at rest. The rear of the frame has a creatively integrated pannier rack that rotates out of the way when folding the bike. The frame lines allowed Azub to set up a simple chain line with just a couple long chain tubes and no idlers.

I ordered the Origami in the spring of 2021 with basic options (Sora 3×9, BB7 brakes) except for a carbon fiber seat upgrade. As usual, Azub offers a wide array of customization via their online configurator. Having recently converted my MINI to electric, I had a bunch of nice parts for the Origami. While the stock weight of the bike was probably around 40 lbs (still below most airline weight limits), my final build came to ~30lbs in the end— making it a fairly light travel bike as far as folding recumbents go.

Just another Azub?

At first glance, the Origami may look like a slightly (13 cm) longer Azub MINI, but there are some key differences. Namely, the Origami lacks suspension and does not accommodate under-seat steering (USS). Of course, in exchange for losing those features, the Origami gains one biggie: it folds (more on folding below).

The Origami also allows for a more reclined /aerodynamic position compared to Azub’s other bikes, and the position of the bottom bracket is slightly higher to deliver more power. Another difference is the more narrow handlebars on the Origami, presumably to help keep the bike compact when folded. It’s a minor detail, but it will limit your cockpit space for accessories more than other bikes.

The ride

I found the Origami, with its rigid frame and sporty seat positioning, to be a quick little bike. The small wheels gave it fast acceleration without any suspension sluggishness. The narrow handlebars tucking your arms/elbows in makes you feel like you’re racing. While this isn’t a racing bike, it’ll just get you across town quickly with a smile on your face.

The ride can be a bit unforgiving, and riders will benefit from the natural suspension of wider tires running at low pressure. I replaced the stock 1.5” Marathon Racers with 2.15” Big Apples and test rode on some packed dirt/gravel trails. While the Big Apples made the ride tolerable, I yearned to get back onto the cushy full-suspension MINI to protect my sensitive back from the jolts. That said, unless you have a particularly delicate back, I think most riders will find the Origami to be comfortable both on and off the road (with appropriate tires).

The fold

As you can see in this video by Azub, it takes just a minute to fold or unfold the Origami. Compared to other folding recumbents, I think this is as easy as it gets.

A few noteworthy details that aren’t so apparent in the video:

  • Azub includes a double-legged kickstand to hold the bike up for you while going through the folding/unfolding process.
  • They also include clip-on platform pedals you can take off when packing the bike.
  • The boom can be easily removed for packing since it is held in place with two quick releases.

Once folded, you can roll the bike by holding the handlebars, or you can place it in a soft carrying bag to sling it over your shoulder. For air travel, you’ll want to put it in a hard-shell suitcase, so note the folded dimensions of the bike down below. I haven’t purchased a suitcase for it yet, but I’ll be sure to write about packing it up when I do.

Folded with seat: 35x35x14 inches (LxHxW)

Folded without seat: 35x30x14 inches (LxHxW)

Other folding recumbents

There are a few other folding recumbents worth considering:

  • HPVelotechnik Grasshopper fx – full suspension, dual 20” with OSS and USS steering options.
  • Linear Limo/Roadster– LWB and SWB versions. Rigid frame with 26/20 wheels and OSS or USS steering options. Frame folds into a ski tube, but wheels and seat must be packed separately.
  • Performer Conquer– a sporty, dual 20” rigid frame SWB bike with OSS steering. The Conquer is a FWD bike, so it may be a steep learning curve for some.
  • Toxy-ZR– This German company makes several folding recumbents, but the ZR is by far the most exciting. It’s a dual 20” FWD low racer with rear suspension and OSS steering. Definitely on my wish list to try one day.
  • Trident TWIG– an entry-level 26/20 steel frame bike with OSS steering.
  • Bike Sat-R-Day– Sadly this folding recumbent is no longer manufactured by the folding bike gurus at Bike Friday, but I couldn’t leave it off the list. It’s a classic with its tiny 16” wheels and compact dimensions.
  • Lightning P-38 Voyager– Not technically a folder, but this version of the popular P-38 has S&S couplers that allow you to take the frame apart and fit the entire bike in a suit case.

Final remarks

If I were to change one thing on my Origami, it would be to do away with the rear cassette and derailleur in favor of an internally geared hub. While doing so would add a little weight to the bike, it would simplify the drive train and make it less susceptible to damage during packing and traveling.

The Origami, with its rigid frame and aerodynamic seating position, is a sportier, livelier bike compared to the MINI. You won’t win any races in the Origami, but you’ll have a trustworthy companion for all your worldly travels.

The Psyclists explore the local trails

This past weekend the Psyclists got together after a month hiatus to brave the 90+ degree weather for a 14-mile excursion from Princeton to Lawrenceville.

We first rode through the comfortably shaded Institute Woods, and then picked up the D&R Canal Towpath southbound until we reached the Lawrence Hopewell Trail (LHT) connector. Here we were met with our first construction detour where we had to ride 0.5 miles along Meadow Road to Princeton Pike instead of following the LHT through the office park to reach Princeton Pike. Not a big deal, but just be aware of that small detour and follow the signs.

About a mile later we encountered our next obstacle: The LHT through the Lawrenceville School campus was closed due to construction. Getting around this one is a bit trickier, but all you need to do is make a left to go behind the field house and then travel on the grass along the south side of the pond. Eventually you’ll end up on Woods Drive which will let you traverse the campus. The upshot is you get to ride through the most scenic areas of the campus before reaching Lawrenceville Village.

In the village there are a few snack/drink options including Starbucks, the Gingered Peach, and the Purple Cow Ice Cream. We decided to turn around there, but one could continue to follow the LHT northward into Village Park and beyond.

The trails were in excellent condition, but we did struggle at times on the D&R Towpath where the gravel and sand would get a bit too deep for comfort. There isn’t much you can do in those situations beyond slowing down and trying to keep the bike steady to push through the gravel without wiping out. This is also where having wide tires, especially on a recumbent, is beneficial.

Next week we plan to explore some more of the LHT between Pennington and Lawrenceville.

Here’s our Garmin route for anyone interested in this ride.

The heat wave couldn’t ruin this group’s fun !

MINI revisited: It’s electric!

While e-bikes can be a divisive topic among cyclists, it’s hard to ignore their increasing popularity. Admittedly it took me some time to warm up to the idea. Do I still get a workout? Is it “cheating”? After test riding an upright e-bike, I realized my worries were unfounded and it was time to transform the MINI once again. This time into an e-recumbent bike suitable for just about any terrain.

E-assist options

Azub offers attractive e-assist builds with Shimano Steps or Brose. The electric motors are integrated into custom booms, wires run internally, and the battery is mounted on the rack. Unfortunately, Azub can’t sell an e-assist upgrade (probably licensing-related?). Thankfully there are plenty of after-market options. While they won’t look as sleek, they’ll be a fraction of the cost if you don’t mind a little DIY work.

Some e-assist kits place the motors in the rear or front wheel hubs while others place them at the cranks (i.e. mid-drives). Two popular mid-drive manufacturers are Bafang and TongSheng. Both seem like good choices, and in the end, I decided to get the TongSheng TSDZ2 motor.

TSDZ2 specs and features

The TSDZ2 has a small form factor yet puts out an impressive 500W of power and 100Nm of torque. The 8 lb motor assists at up to 28MPH and/or 100RPM (you can always go faster but the motor won’t assist you). It can be installed on any bike that has a standard 68-73mm bottom bracket.

The most attractive feature of the TSDZ2 is the torque sensor which provides a more natural pedaling feel. With a torque sensor, if you pedal gently you get a gentle assist, and if you pedal hard the motor will assist more. In contrast, without a torque sensor, a motor will give a flat level of assist as long as you are pedaling. The torque sensor obviates the need for brake sensors to cut power since the motor is quick to respond when you stop pedaling.

While the motors are widely available, I purchased a recumbent-specific kit (the ECO+) offered by Eco-Cycles. They provide cable extensions to accommodate long recumbent frames, and a boom clamp specific to your boom diameter for securely mounting the motor. Eco also offers additional upgrades, including a software upgrade (OSF upgrade) that allows for custom assist levels and higher RPM assist.

The kit I chose included a more durable PEEK plastic gear inside the motor unit, the SW102 small LCD screen, and a 42T chainring to handle moderate hills. I skipped the throttle option in favor of always having to pedal. I also passed on the custom software upgrade to keep things simple.


My local bike shop installed the motor onto the boom for me, and I installed the rest myself. I used zip ties to run three cables along the bike. One cable ran up the steering assembly to the display screen. Another cable ran to the back chainstays for a speed sensor. The third cable ran to the battery. I mounted the battery (52v 13ah Jumbo Hailong Shark; 11 lbs; 30-60 mile range) beneath the seat with the versatile T-Cycle universal battery mount.

Riding with e-assist

It’s no wonder e-bikes are so popular. With the pedal assist, I no longer have to worry about how hilly a particular route is before I go out. I still have to work to get up those hills, but I can get there faster.

I can choose from four assist levels (eco, standard, super, turbo). With the torque sensing system, at each assist level, the system will add a percentage of the power you are outputting. So if I’m putting out 100 watts while using the first assist level, the motor will add 40% (or 40 watts) to the output. That percentage keeps going up at each assist level, so you can decide how fast you want to go at the output you’re producing.

Another benefit I had not anticipated is being able to quickly clear intersections from a stop. Cars don’t have to wait for me to get up to speed, and I can spend less time worrying about them getting mad. Relatedly, I can also be more patient since slowing down or stopping for others isn’t such a big deal when I can get back up to speed easier.

It’s only been a few weeks of riding my electrified MINI, but I can safely recommend e-assist to anyone looking to enjoy more time on their bikes without fearing those hills.

The Contraption Captains

The following excerpt is from “Bike Snob” by the popular bike blogger, Eben Weiss:

Well over a hundred years ago the bicycle realized its current form, and it has remained largely unchanged ever since. However, there are some intrepid souls who refuse to accept this, and who embrace alternative designs for human-powered wheeled vehicles. And by far the most popular alternative “bicycle” is the recumbent.

The recumbent strikes fear into the hearts of nearly every non-recumbent-riding cyclist. If you’ve ever seen a dog growl at a plastic bag caught in a shrub because the dog thinks it might be some kind of weird animal, then you understand the reaction. Cyclists all notice one another, so when we see something that looks somewhat like a bicycle yet places the rider in an odd position with his feet kicking at the air like he’s defending himself from an attacking eagle we become confused and disoriented. And when animals (including humans) don’t understand something they become angry and defensive.

However, Contraption Captains mean no harm, and they’re simply operating machines they feel are superior to regular bicycles because they’re potentially faster and they don’t require the rider to sit on a narrow saddle. Of course, they also can’t negotiate tight corners, they’re heavy, they’re difficult or impossible to lock to poles or bike racks, they’re unwieldy and can’t easily be stored in small apartments or offices, they don’t climb hills well, and they require big tall flags since they’re below automobile hood level. Yet none of these things keep the Contraption Captains from polishing their helmet mirrors, combing their beards, packing a day’s worth of supplies in their fanny packs, and taking to the roads.

Admittedly, when I first read this I felt seen.

A lovely decal from my family

The Psyclists’ first spring ride

The Princeton Psychology/Neuroscience cycling group dusted off their bikes and reconvened after a long winter.

Today’s route took us along the scenic D&R Canal towpath from Princeton to Rocky Hill. From there we crossed to the other side of the canal and looped back with a stop at PJ’s Pancake House in Kingston for some coffee and snacks.

Interesting sightings included a few dozen sunbathing turtle, some hissing geese, and a great blue heron flyby.

In total, we rode 13 miles– most of which were flat except for the steep hill along Rt 27 into Kingston.

Here’s our Garmin route for anyone interested in the ride.

Cycling with your child

With a kindergartner on the verge of riding a bike on his own (I think it’ll happen this summer, but let’s not jinx it), I thought it may be fun to review the various contraptions (there’ve been many!) I’ve used to bring him along on rides ever since he could hold his little head up. Some of these child carriers won’t safely work with a recumbent bike or trike, but I did manage to adapt a couple of them as you’ll see.

Child-in-front seating

When my son was one year old, it made the most sense to have him in front of me within eyesight and also within reach in case of a fall. At that time I was riding a Surly Straggler that was set up as an upright and comfortable commuter.

I chose the Kangaroo by Kazam because unlike other front child seats that mount directly to the steerer, the Kangaroo mounts to a bar behind the head tube. This bar runs along the length of the bike and is secured to the seat tube at the rear and the head tube at the front. I like this design because it prevents the child from being a counterweight which would make steering more difficult.

The Kazam Kangaroo mounts to a bar that ran along the top tube, thereby maintaining a good central weight ditribution on the bike that made handling easier.

Child-in-rear seating

The following year we tried the Thule Yepp Maxi rear seat. A unique feature of this seat is that it can mount directly onto a luggage rack or to the frame’s seat tube with a special attachment. In my case, I didn’t have much confidence in the strength of my rear rack, so I opted to mount it to the seat tube.

The seat is made of lightweight, high-quality foam-like material that provides both comfort and built-in suspension. The footrests are adjustable and have shielding to prevent little feet from hitting the rear wheel.

When I bought my first recumbent, I was hoping to attach the Yepp Maxi to the bike, but decided against it. While I did find one instance of someone mounting a rear child seat to the rack of an Azub recumbent bike, it didn’t looked particularly safe to have so much weight on the rear rack.

The Thule Yepp Maxi was well built and seemed comfortable enough for the little guy to fall asleep on many rides.

Bike trailer

Bike trailers are safe, all-weather solutions to bringing a child along on a ride. They mount to the rear axle of your bike with a small hitch attachment and work as well on recumbent bikes as they do with regular bikes.

My son enjoyed some rides in the comfort of a Burley Bee bike trailer, not unlike a little king being pulled in his chariot. Unfortunately, he got bored and lost interest. I don’t blame him. In the trailer, you don’t feel the wind on your face, and you’re too far to chat with Mom or Dad. I’ve met families that routinely use bike trailers, but it wasn’t working for us.

Pedaling “Weehoo” trailer

The Weehoo is a single-wheel bike trailer where the child is seated in the recumbent position (!!) and has a set of functioning pedals in front of them. The seat position can be adjusted fore/aft, and it comes with useful features like a removable canopy and panniers for storing snacks and a jacket.

Because the Weehoo attaches to the seat post of your bike, it won’t work with most recumbent bikes. That being said, I was set on using this (after all, it was a $20 Goodwill find by my wife!). Because my Azub MINI’s frame is open in the back to receive a rack, I designed a faux seat post that could be inserted into the frame in place of the rack, and had it fabricated by a local machine shop.

The best thing about the Weehoo trailer is that the child can pedal if they want to and feel like they’re participating in the ride. This was a game-changer for my son. He had a blast and learned how to pedal without the fear of falling.

Tow bars and tag-alongs

Both tow bars and tag-alongs attach to your bike’s seat post. A tow bar, such as the Trail Gator, lets you tow your child’s bike, while tag-alongs are essentially bikes without a functional front half.

We’re currently experimenting with the Trail Gator using the faux seat post on the Azub MINI. So far it seems to work reasonably well, provided the tow bar is attached as high as possible on the seat post (otherwise the entire setup is too unstable). Generally, I think the tow bar is a better option than a tag-along since it allows the child to “detach” and ride solo when they want and then be towed when they tire out.

One other device worth mentioning in this category is the FollowMe Tandem. It’s similar to a tow bar in that it allows you to pull the child’s bike. However, instead of attaching to the seat post (which limits its use with recumbent bikes), it attaches to the rear axle and seems much more stable. The FollowMe Tandem should work with just about any recumbent bike as well, as long as the rear wheel is at least 26”. Sadly, because my current recumbents are both 20”, I can’t try one out at this time.

Here’s our first attempt with the Trail Gator tow bar and a Woom 4 kid’s bike. I think the stability of the towbar could be improved if the faux seat post was a bit taller to match the height of a regular bike’s seat post.